- The time between the afternoon of 3 December to the afternoon of 4 December saw some of the heaviest shelling in Gaza so far, with at least 349 Palestinians killed and 750 injured, according to the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Gaza, and three Israeli soldiers killed, according to Israeli sources. Israeli bombardments from air, land, and sea across Gaza, as well as ground operations and fighting significantly intensified, while the firing of rockets by Palestinian armed groups to Israel continued.
- On 4 December, 100 aid trucks carrying humanitarian supplies and 69,000 litres of fuel entered from Egypt into Gaza, about the same as the previous day. This is well below the daily average of 170 trucks and 110,000 litres of fuel that had entered during the humanitarian pause implemented between 24 and 30 November.
- On 4 December, the Humanitarian Coordinator for the Occupied Palestinian Territory stated that” the conditions required to deliver aid to the people of Gaza do not exist. If possible, an even more hellish scenario is about to unfold, one in which humanitarian operations may not be able to respond. What we see today are shelters with no capacity, a health system on its knees, a lack of clean drinking water, no proper sanitation and poor nutrition for people already mentally and physically exhausted: a textbook formula for epidemics and a public health disaster.”
- On 4 December, 25 wounded people and 583 foreign or dual nationals were evacuated from Gaza to Egypt and ten humanitarian staff have entered Gaza.
- On 4 December, for the second consecutive day, Rafah was the only governorate in Gaza where limited aid distributions, primarily of flour and water, took place. In the adjacent Khan Younis governorate, aid distribution largely stopped due to the intensity of hostilities. The Middle Area was largely disconnected from the south, following Israeli forces’ restrictions of movement along the main roads, including for humanitarian supplies. Access from the south to areas north of Wadi Gaza (hereafter: the north) came to a halt on 1 December, with the resumption of hostilities.
- On 4 December at about 20:30, the main telecommunication provider in Gaza announced that all telecom services had shut down due to cuts in the main fibre routes. This followed a partial shutdown in Gaza city and northern Gaza a few hours earlier due to ongoing hostilities. Humanitarian agencies and first responders have warned that blackouts jeopardize the already constrained provision of life-saving assistance.
- On 3 December, the Israeli military designated an area covering about 20 per cent of Khan Younis city for immediate evacuation. Prior to the onset of hostilities, this area was home to nearly 117,000 people. The area also includes 21 shelters hosting about 50,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), the vast majority of whom were previously displaced from the north, meaning that already displaced people are being displaced once again. Residents were instructed to move to Al Fukhari town, east of Khan Younis, and Ash Shaboura and Tell As Sultan neighbourhoods of Rafah, which are already overcrowded.
- On 3 and 4 December, tens of thousands of IDPs arrived in Rafah, presumably from the areas across the Khan Younis governorate. Given that shelters in Rafah city have exceeded their capacity by far, most newly arriving IDPs have settled in the streets and in empty spaces across the city, where they erected tents and makeshift shelters
- Under international humanitarian law, parties to a conflict must take all feasible precautions to avoid, and in any event to minimize, civilian harm. This can entail evacuating civilians or giving effective advance warning of attacks, which provides civilians enough time to leave, as well as a safe route and place to go. All possible measures must be adopted to ensure that those civilians displaced can afford satisfactory conditions of safety, shelter, nutrition, and hygiene and ensure that family members are not separated. Civilians choosing to stay in areas designated for evacuation do not lose their protection.
- On 4 December, during her visit to Gaza, the President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Mirjana Spoljaric, stated that “"it is unacceptable that civilians have no safe place to go in Gaza, and with a military siege in place there is also no adequate humanitarian response currently possible.”
- On 3 and 4 December, intense bombardments and fighting took place around three out of the four partially operational hospitals in the north of Gaza, and the Nasser hospital in the south. Some of them were directly hit, leading to casualties and damage to the hospital facilities (for further details see Health section below). According to the Ministry of health in Gaza (MoH), hospitals are “flooded with an influx of dead bodies.”
- On 4 December, the Secretary-General reiterated his call for a sustained humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza and the unconditional and immediate release of all remaining hostages.
Hostilities and casualties (Gaza Strip)
- The following are among the deadliest incidents reported in the afternoon of 3 December (all three attacks hit residential buildings):
- At about 14:40, fifty people were reportedly killed and dozens injured near Safad school in Az Zaytoun area of Gaza city;
- At about 15:00, thirty people were reportedly killed and twenty injured in An Nafaq area of Gaza city (building hit twice);
- At about 16:20, at least 17 people were reportedly killed and about 120 others injured in Al Genena neighbourhood of Rafah.
- On 4 December, heavy fighting was reported along Salah Ad Deen Road, between Khan Younis and the Middle Area. In one incident, ten people were reportedly killed when several vehicles were struck. In another case, seven people were reportedly killed, mostly women and children, when a horse cart was hit. On the same day, the Israeli military instructed residents not to use this road.
- On 3 December, at about 15:00, ten people were reportedly killed and 20 injured when the vicinity of Al Fakhoura UNRWA school in Jabalia refugee camp, in the north, was hit. This school had been hit at least twice before; including on 18 November, when tens of fatalities were reported. Between 7 October and 2 November, 218 IDPs sheltering in UNRWA premises were killed and 901 were injured.
- According to the MoH in Gaza, between 7 October and 4 December afternoon, at least 15,899 Palestinians were killed in Gaza, about 70 per cent of whom are said to be women and children. Many more are missing, presumably under the rubble, awaiting rescue or recovery.
- The fatality toll since 7 October and until the resumption of hostilities on 1 December includes at least 198 Palestinian medics, according to the Gaza MoH; 112 UN staff; 77 journalists and media workers, according to the Palestinian Journalist Syndicate; and at least 26 Civil Defense staff, according to the Palestinian Civil Defense.
- Overall, 80 Israeli soldiers have been killed in Gaza since the start of the Israeli ground operations, according to official Israeli sources.
Displacement (Gaza Strip)
- On 1 December, the Israeli military issued a detailed online map, where the Gaza Strip is divided into hundreds of small areas. Reportedly, the map is intended to facilitate orders to evacuate people to specific areas ahead of their targeting. On the following two days, various areas, encompassing about 28 per cent of the Gaza Strip, were marked for evacuation.
- In addition to the area within Khan Younis city (see above), the largest area designated for evacuation includes localities east of Khan Younis – Al Qarara, Khuza’a, Abasan and Bani Suheila – whose residents have been ordered to move further south to Rafah. These areas, encompassing 19 per cent of the Gaza Strip (69 square kilometres), were home to about 352,000 people prior to the onset of hostilities.
- On 2 December, the Israeli military ordered the evacuation of the eastern parts of Gaza city (Ash Shuja’iyeh, Az Zaytoun and the Old City) and of Jabalia, both in the north, and instructed residents to move towards the western areas of Gaza city. The designated areas constitute about six per cent of the Gaza Strip. Prior to the hostilities, they were home to about 415,000 people, many of whom have already evacuated. The scale and scope of population movements following these orders remains unclear.
- Overall, about 1.8 million people in Gaza, or nearly 80 per cent of the population, are estimated to be internally displaced. However, obtaining an accurate count is challenging, especially given difficulties in tracking IDPs staying with host families, movement of IDPs following evacuation orders since 1 December, and access restrictions.
- Nearly 1.1 million IDPs are registered in 156 UNRWA facilities across Gaza, of whom about 86 per cent (958,000) are registered in 99 UNRWA shelters in the south. Another 191,000 IDPs are estimated to be staying in 124 public schools and hospitals, as well as in other venues such as wedding halls, offices, and community centres. The rest are hosted by families.
- Due to the overcrowding and poor sanitary conditions at UNRWA shelters in the south, there have been significant increases in some communicable diseases and conditions such as diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, skin infections and hygiene-related conditions like lice. There are also initial reports of disease outbreaks, including potentially Hepatitis A.
- Concerns have been raised about vulnerable groups of people who are struggling with difficult shelter conditions. This includes people with disabilities; women who are pregnant, have recently given birth, or are breastfeeding; people who are recovering from injuries or surgeries; and those with compromised immune systems.
- Since 11 October, the Gaza Strip has been under an electricity blackout, after the Israeli authorities cut off the electricity supply, and fuel reserves for Gaza’s sole power plant depleted. Depending on the availability of fuel, electricity is produced by generators, as well as by solar panels. For more information on electricity supply to the Gaza strip, please see this dashboard.
Health care, including attacks (Gaza Strip)
- Three out of the four partially operating hospitals in the north have been hit on 3 and 4 December. Two series of airstrikes hit the Kamal Adwan Hospital, in Jabalia, with four fatalities and nine injuries reported in one of them. More than 10,000 IDPs are sheltering inside and around the hospital. On 3 December, five people were reportedly killed as Al Awda Hospital in Beit Lahiya was hit. And on 4 December, the surroundings of Al Ahli Hospital, Gaza city, were bombarded, with several fatalities reported.
- Hospitals in the south of Gaza are barely able to cope with the influx of injuries. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) reported that this is the case with two hospitals it supports – Al Aqsa in the Middle Area and Nasser in the south. This challenge is exacerbated by the suspension of support to two medical clinics located in areas under evacuation orders. MSF reported that, on 3 and 4 December, more than 100 fatalities and 400 injuries arrived at Al Aqsa hospital. To address this surge, a temporary wound dressing unit has been set up to provide wound management to patients with chronic wounds or injuries.
- On 4 December, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that the Israeli military had instructed it to remove its supplies from two medical warehouses in southern Gaza within 24 hours, ahead of ground operations.
- The 12 hospitals in the south are partially functional. At present, the bed capacity across Gaza is 1,400, down from 3,500 prior to the hostilities. This decline comes amid a surge in those seeking treatment. Only one of the currently functional hospitals has the capacity to treat critical trauma cases or perform complex surgery, according to WHO.
Water and sanitation (Gaza Strip)
- Grave concerns about waterborne diseases due to water consumption from unsafe sources persist, particularly in the north where the water desalination plant and the pipeline from Israel was shut down. There has been almost no improvement in the access of residents in the north to water for drinking and domestic purposes for weeks.
- In the south, UNRWA continues to operate eight water wells that provide potable and domestic water to IDP shelters, alongside water trucking operations. Over the past few weeks, solid waste collection from the camps, and emergency shelters and transfer to landfills have also continued to reduce the level of health and environmental risks.
Hostilities and casualties (Israel)
- The indiscriminate rocket fire by Palestinian armed groups from Gaza towards Israel continued on 4 December; no casualties were reported. Over 1,200 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed in Israel, according to the Israeli authorities, the vast majority on 7 October.
- During the humanitarian pause (24-30 November), 86 Israeli and 24 foreign national hostages had been released. It is estimated that about 137 people remain captive in Gaza, including Israelis and foreign nationals, according to Israeli sources. Before the pause, four civilian hostages had been released by Hamas, one Israeli soldier had been rescued by Israeli forces, and three bodies of hostages had reportedly been retrieved by Israeli forces.
Violence and casualties (in and around the West Bank)
- On 4 December, three Palestinian men were killed by Israeli forces in two operations that the latter carried out in Qalqiliya and Qalandiya Refugee Camp (Jerusalem) where exchanges of fire with Palestinians were reported. Another 32 Palestinians, including four children, were injured by Israeli forces during these operations.
- Since 7 October, 246 Palestinians, including 65 children, have been killed in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Additionally, two Palestinians from the West Bank were killed while carrying out an attack in Israel on 30 November. Of those killed in the West Bank, 236 have been killed by Israeli forces, eight by Israeli settlers and another two have been killed either by forces or settlers. The eight-week toll represents more than half of all Palestinians killed in the West Bank this year. Already, 2023 is the deadliest year for Palestinians in the West Bank since OCHA began recording casualties in 2005.
- Since 7 October, four Israelis, including three members of Israeli forces, have been killed in attacks by Palestinians in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. An additional four were killed in West Jerusalem in a Palestinian attack (one of whom was killed by Israeli forces who misidentified him).
- Two-thirds of the Palestinian fatalities in the West Bank since 7 October have occurred during search-and-arrest and other operations carried out by Israeli forces, including some – mainly in Jenin and Tulkarm governorates – involving exchanges of fire with Palestinians. More than half of the fatalities were reported in operations that did not involve armed clashes.
- Since 7 October, Israeli forces have injured 3,313 Palestinians, including at least 520 children; 45 per cent of them in the context of demonstrations and 46 per cent in the context of search-and-arrest and other operations. An additional 84 Palestinians have been injured by settlers and 18 others either by Israeli forces or settlers. Some 33 per cent of those injuries have been caused with live ammunition, compared with 9 per cent in the first nine months of 2023.
- On 3 December, two Palestinian children (12- and 14-year-old) were shot and injured with live ammunition reportedly coming from Nili settlement, which is about 300 meters away from where the children were having a picnic, on the mountains of Deir Qaddis village (Ramallah). On 4 December, armed Israeli settlers, reportedly from Rotem settlement, threw stones at Palestinian homes in Al Farisiya-Nab'a al Gazal in the Jordan Valley (Tubas) and physically assaulted and injured three Israeli activists who were present in solidarity with the community.
- Between 3 and 4 December, two additional settler attacks resulting in damage to Palestinian-owned property were reported. In one of the incidents, on 3 December, Israeli settlers, reportedly from Halamish settlement, vandalized the glass and punctured the tires of 15 vehicles in a car workshop in Area C of the western outskirts of Umm Safa (Ramallah). The same day, on another incident, Israeli settlers threw stones at Palestinian vehicles on road 60 near Turmus’ayya (Ramallah), vandalizing one Palestinian-owned vehicle.
- Since 7 October, OCHA has recorded 314 settler attacks against Palestinians, resulting in Palestinian casualties (35 incidents), damage to Palestinian-owned property (237 incidents), or both casualties and damage to property (42 incidents). The weekly average of such incidents during this period stands at 39, compared with 21 incidents between 1 January and 6 October 2023. However, the number of incidents since 7 October has gradually declined from 80 incidents in the first week (7-14 October) to 18 incidents in the last (27 November - 3 December). One-third of these incidents included threats with firearms, including shootings. In nearly half of all recorded incidents, Israeli forces were either accompanying or actively supporting the attackers.
Displacement (West Bank)
- Since 7 October, at least 143 Palestinian households comprising 1,014 people, including 388 children, have been displaced amid settler violence and access restrictions. The displaced households are from 15 herding/Bedouin communities.
- Additionally, 283 Palestinians, including 149 children, have been displaced since 7 October following demolitions in Area C and East Jerusalem, due to lack of Israeli issued building-permits; and 63 Palestinians, including 31 children, have been displaced following punitive demolitions.
- As of 4 December, Member States have disbursed USD$377.1 million against the updated Flash Appeal launched by the UN and its partners to implement its response plan in support of 2.2 million people in the Gaza Strip and 500,000 in the West Bank. This constitutes about 31 per cent of the $1.2 billion requested. Private donations are collected through the Humanitarian Fund.
HUMANITARIAN NEEDS AND RESPONSES: 27 November – 3 December
During the reporting period, Cluster partners have carried out the following activities across Gaza:
- 150 mobile teams provided primary healthcare services to IDPs. Partners are working to increase the number of mobile teams to cover more shelters;
- about 40,000 primary healthcare consultations daily through fixed and mobile services, including shelters in the north;
- 600 individual clean delivery kits were distributed to 13 shelters north of Gaza;
- 10,000 hygiene kits were distributed to IDPs in shelters in the north;
- A daily average of 500 post-natal care and high-risk pregnancy consultations;
- 455 patients in the north with non-communicable diseases received cash assistance to procure medications;
- Some 11,000 people benefitted from MHPSS services delivered through mobile health teams;
During the humanitarian pause coordination of movement of partners and supplies especially to the north was very complex. Insecurity in Gaza has forced partners to stop operations and/or preventing them from reaching certain locations, especially the north. Lack of fuel, and other essential supplies continues to pose major challenges for partners’ response. Displacement of partners, their staff and families also continue to affect operational capacity. Overcrowding in the shelters is complicating health service delivery and increasing the risk of communicable diseases, including outbreak-prone diseases.
Risk education, conflict preparedness, explosive ordinance assessment and ultimately mine disposal remain key priorities. During the reporting period, cluster partners delivered text messages with Explosive Ordnance Risk Education (EORE) and CPP to over 1 million people. Over 11,100 children and adults in shelters participated in 227 EORE sessions, and 900 EORE/ CPP posters including safety messages were distributed by Humanity and Inclusion (HI), an international NGO, in the southern governorates. The United Nations Mine Service (UNMAS) delivered two short training for trainers' sessions on EORE to 100 UNRWA protection focal points in Khan Younis and Rafah – who will then train people in UNRWAs southern shelters. NPAs Social media campaign reached over 2 million people (52 per cent in Gaza, 48 per cent in the West Bank) and UNMAS/ MAGs campaign reached 1.2 million in Gaza and 980k in WB). A scale up on all fronts is urgently needed. Access constraints and communication challenges as well as shortage of material information supplies suitable for different groups including children remain challenges.
An explosive threat assessment (ETA) was conducted at an UNRWA Health Centre in Bureij. The centre was struck by several tank rounds impacting the southern and southwest walls, leaving considerable damage inside. There are hopes to reopen the Health Centre soon. A second ETA was conducted at two schools/shelters in Nuseirat that were hit twice in November.
UNMAS accompanied aid missions to Gaza city and conducted an ETA at UNRWA GFO in Gaza. The compound perimeter walls were damaged by airstrikes hitting surrounding areas. There was also fire damage and evidence of looting. Much of the damage is assessed to be quickly repairable.
‘Humanity and Inclusion’ teams reached and assessed 98 UN and non-UN shelters in the south and conducted 67 recreational activities providing psychosocial support to more than 28,800 people. ‘Stars of Hope,’ another NGO issued position papers indicating the complex impact and challenges for persons with disabilities in Gaza.
UNICEF is about signing an agreement with SOS Children’s Village International where unaccompanied and separated children can be referred for services. SOS is currently hosting 75 children since 7 October and has capacity for another 15 children. Once nonfood items are delivered, hosting capacity will increase to an additional 40 places for children 3 years and above. UNRWA and UNICEF are preparing a referral mechanism. UNRWA Protection is also coordinating with Terres des Hommes, another NGO, on the provision of psychological first aid, individual counselling and referral support to the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme, including provision of medications for UNRWA’s shelters.
Food assistance response during the reporting period has included the following:
- UNRWA distributed flour to 23,384 families in the south. Flour continued to be prioritised for distribution in the north as part of the humanitarian convoys that took place during the ongoing humanitarian pause.
- UN agencies and the Palestine Red Crescent Society provided ready-to-eat food, including 7.6 metric tons of high-energy biscuits distributed by WFP, covering the minimal daily food intake for 23,616 people at UNRWA shelters in Jabalia.
- WFP reached 121,000 people in shelters and host communities with bread, food parcels, and e-vouchers since the humanitarian pause started. On the first day of the pause in hostilities, around 90,000 IDPs in UN shelters received fresh bread sourced from the only currently operational WFP-run bakery operating on an ad-hoc basis. WFP is partnering with Global Communities to distribute food parcels to IDPs in host communities. WFP also started distributing hot meals in coordination with local partners, reaching around 6,000 people over two days.
- Secure Islamique France distributed baskets to 3,000 individuals in Khan Younis.
- ANERA continues to buy fresh meat and fish from poor farmers, cooking and distributing hot meals (meat and rice or fish and rice) to 460,000 people.
- PUI distributed food baskets to 3000 IDPs in Khan Younis and the Middle area in public shelters and cancer patients and their families in Al Salam Hospital. 500 vegetable baskets were distributed by PARC to IDPs in host communities in Khan Younis and the Middle Area.
- IHH is distributing 5,000 daily cooked meals and 500 daily bread bundles and plans to distribute RTEs for 30,000 families in UN and non-UN shelters in different locations.
- Oxfam, in partnership with ESDC, is distributing fresh vegetable parcels and food (the parcels include tomatoes, eggplant, and cucumbers, which could be changed according to the availability of vegetables).
- In partnership with PARC, UPA continues distributing fresh vegetable baskets, targeting around 5,000 people.
- PARC will distribute 251 E-Vouchers through FSS's emergency response and 231 E-Vouchers.
- Middle East Children's Alliance targets host families in the Khan Younis area by providing food parcels to 20,000 people.
The Nutrition cluster was officially activated on 9 November. UNICEF is leading the cluster, which currently has 27 partners. The cluster monitors the nutrition situation in Gaza and supports partners to scale up aid for mothers and children through preventive and curative interventions.
During the reporting period UNICEF delivered anaemia treatment for over 33,300 pregnant and breastfeeding women, High Energy Biscuits for 15,000 children 6-23 months, micronutrients supplementation for 16,000 children 24-59 months and 2,400 pregnant and breastfeeding women, Vit A and Zink supplementation for over 260,000 children 6-59 months. WFP delivered 8,420 cartons of High Energy Biscuits to reach 105,830 people in need.
Shelter and Non-Food Items (NFI)
During the reporting period, it is observed that there is still a significant shortage of basic shelter materials, which includes supplying tents, tarps, and plastic sheeting to protect during rainy days, particularly for people living outside shelters. The partners distributed the following items to IDPs.
- 16,500 winter clothing kits.
- 3,800 kitchen kits.
- 7,500 blankets and mattresses.
- 4,400 washing kits.
- 300 sealing-off kits for winterization.
Due to limited supplies, the partners were only able to cover less than 10per cent of the overall Shelter/NFIs needs. There is still a major gap in shelter winterization materials and essential NFIs, including sealing off kits for damaged houses; a high shortage in bedding sets, including mattresses and blankets to cover the needs of the IDPs in various settings, including UNRWA shelters; and lastly, winterized tents to protect homeless IDPs from harsh weather condition.
Since 7 October, nine Education Cluster partners have reached 50,726 students and teachers. The main deliverables included emergency learning and recreational supplies (26,833 people reached), psychosocial support (31,318 reached), and recreational activities (49,726 reached). The response has been focusing on Khan Younis, Rafah, and Middle governorates, as North Gaza and Gaza governorates are inaccessible.
Multi-Purpose Cash assistance (MPCA)
Since the beginning of the hostilities, 66,870 households (including roughly 449,000 people) were delivered Emergency MPCA. Cash out rates across the response stand at 70-75 per cent but have been declining slightly over the past few days. While distribution is delivered across the Gaza strip, the vast majority is now concentrated in the south.
Formal market actors, such as supermarkets and retailers are largely depleted and facing major challenges in re-stocking and operating; however, informal markets, such as vendors, minimarts, carts and stalls, reportedly turned into the main source for goods. Information is still unclear on whether shops and markets actors were able to restock during the pause.
Post distribution monitoring data from recipients of cash assistance point to food, water, medicines, hygiene products, and clothing as the top expenditures reported. About 81 per cent of respondents reported that unrestricted cash helped them accessing needed goods and services, either fully or partially. Over 95 per cent reported unrestricted cash as their preference for future assistance.
The Logistics Cluster developed and disseminated a new online reporting form to collect information regarding incoming supplies as well as the current stock levels in Egypt and other countries. The form was shared with 34 organisations that are part of the Logistics Cluster and other Clusters and is an ongoing project to be updated on a weekly basis.
On 22 November, 21 mobile storage units (MSUs) arrived in Al Arish, Egypt. The MSUs will be installed, in Egypt to augment the Egyptian Red Crescent’s (ERC) warehousing capacity, and 11 will be delivered to Gaza to expand the storage capacity in key locations. An additional three MSUs were already delivered to Gaza and are in the process of being installed. The latter MSUs will provide an additional 960 m2 of storage capacity. To further support partners inside Gaza, an International NGO will support with providing access to their storage capacity through the Logistics Cluster to receive I/NGOs’ cargo on behalf of the wider humanitarian community.
The Emergency Telecommunications Cluster (ETC) continues to coordinate a collective approach among partners for the importation of telecommunications equipment into Gaza. On 3 December, the ETC team, UNDSS, Help. NGO, and UNOCHA met with the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) to discuss the list of technical equipment and solutions submitted for importation into Gaza— to install an independent connectivity and security communications services for humanitarian responders. Following the feedback received from COGAT, the team is developing a revised detailed proposal containing the consolidated description of all equipment and solutions required to operate in Gaza. On 3 December, COGAT also authorized the team to purchase 20 satellite phones from a local service provider and import into Gaza for use by humanitarian responders. The ETC alerted COGAT of the ongoing limited internet connectivity for humanitarian responders, while UNOCHA raised the issue of limited fuel access for Mobile Network Operators—to power telecommunications towers.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
The standards for emergency water supply include aspects for water quantity, water quality and access to water. The minimum daily water needs for the population of Gaza has been agreed at 15 liters/person/day (L/D/P), whereas the pre-crisis water use was approximately 100 L/P/D.
During the reporting period, the Coastal Municipalities Water Utility and WASH agencies have produced on average over 50,327 cubic metres of water, which is the equivalent of approximately 22.6 L/P/D. Water quality and access standards, however, remain unachieved. Access is a particular challenge as the water networks are fractured, production points are reduced, power for pumping and distribution restricted and storage and outlets minimized. Many communities are isolated across Gaza but particularly north of Wadi Gaza.
WASH partners' activities included the trucking of 316 cubic metres of water, the distribution of 522 cubic metres of bottled water, and 10,280 family hygiene kites, all in the south. In addition, 260 Solid Waste Containers were distributed in 13 shelters in the north.
Protection against sexual abuse and exploitation (PSEA) remains a cross-cutting priority for all clusters. The SAWA helpline, reachable at 121 and through WhatsApp at +972 59-4040121 (East Jerusalem at 1-800-500-121), operates 24/7. This toll-free number is widely disseminated across all areas of intervention to report cases of SEA and to facilitate emergency counselling and referrals for affected communities to access life-saving services. The PSEA Network monitors calls daily and will increase the number of counsellors if necessary.
* Asterisks indicate that a figure, sentence, or section has been rectified, added, or retracted after the initial publication of this update.