Makeshift shelters erected by displaced people in Al Foukhari area of southern Gaza. Tents and improvised structures have been set up wherever possible, including on sidewalks, in squares and even in the middle of streets. Photo by UNRWA/Mohammed Hinnawi, 10 January 2024

Hostilities in the Gaza Strip and Israel | Flash Update #91

Key points 

  • Intense Israeli bombardments from air, land, and sea continued across much of the Gaza Strip on 12 January, resulting in further civilian casualties and destruction. The firing of rockets by Palestinian armed groups into Israel reportedly continued, and also ground operations and fighting between Israeli forces and Palestinian armed groups across much of the Gaza Strip. 
  • Between the afternoons of 11 and 12 January, according to the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Gaza, 151 Palestinians were reportedly killed, and another 248 people were reportedly injured. Between 7 October 2023 and 12:00 on 12 January 2024, at least 23,708 Palestinians were killed in Gaza and 60,005 Palestinians were  injured, according to MoH.  
  • Since 11 January and as of 12 January, there were no reports of  Israeli soldier  killed in Gaza. Since the start of the ground operation, 184 soldiers have been killed, and 1,099 soldiers have been injured in Gaza, according to the Israeli military. 
  • Access denials of humanitarian missions and severe access constraints by Israeli authorities have risen since the start of the year, with only 21 per cent (five out of 24) of planned deliveries of food, medicine, water and other lifesaving supplies successfully reaching their destinations in northern Gaza. These denials paralyze the ability of humanitarian partners to respond meaningfully, consistently and at-scale, to widespread humanitarian needs.  
  • On 12 January, the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Griffith’s stated that: “Our efforts to send humanitarian convoys to the North have been met with delays, denials, and the imposition of impossible conditions. The lack of respect for the humanitarian notification system puts every movement of aid workers in danger, as do the wholly insufficient quantities of armoured vehicles and the limited communications equipment that we have been allowed to bring in... Providing humanitarian assistance across Gaza is almost impossible.” 
  • Overall, the rate of access denials for missions to the north of Wadi Gaza seen as of 12 January 2024 presents a significant deterioration when compared with those of December 2023, where more than 70 per cent (13 out of 18) of planned UN missions to the north were coordinated and undertaken, where needs are estimated to be the highest and most severe. Every day of assistance missed results in lost lives and suffering for hundreds of thousands of people who remain in northern Gaza. Access to the north is almost impossible, and access the Deir al Balah and Khan Younis areas is  shrinking by the day. 
  • Since 1 January, Israeli authorities have restricted all six humanitarian missions to resupply fuel to water and wastewater stations in the north, for life-saving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) assistance. This denotes a shift from the period between October and December 2023, where only 33 per cent of the missions (2) were restricted . Humanitarian partners have not been able to assess or resupply fuel to Jabalya area since receiving initial reports of water and waste flooding in Jabalya camp on 5 January. At least 100,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) are estimated to reside in UN and public shelters in that area. The last humanitarian mission reaching there was on the 29 November, during the ceasefire. 
  • Flooding and waste contamination pose serious health threats. With one latrine shared by hundreds of displaced people, urgent access to the aforementioned areas is imperative. Unmanaged human waste, combined with flooding of water and sewage not only increases health risks, but also causes sustained damage to remaining public infrastructure and induce environmental hazards. 
  • Since 1 January, only one of ten planned missions in support of health lifesaving and emergency activities (including the provision of medicines) proceeded to north Gaza and they could not be carried out fully. As a result, hospitals in northern Gaza remain without sufficient access to life-saving medical supplies and equipment.  
  • On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that after more than two weeks, humanitarian partners were able to reach Shifa hospital in northern Gaza. They delivered 9,300 litres of fuel and medical supplies to cover 1,000 trauma and 100 kidney dialysis patients. Shifa hospital has reestablished some of its medical services, with 60 medical staff, ⁠a surgical and medical ward with 40 beds, an emergency department, ⁠four operating theatres, basic emergency obstetric and gynaecologic services, a limited haemodialysis unit, minimal laboratory services, and basic radiology services. 
  • As of 12 January, less than half of the planned coordinated missions across Gaza (3 of 7) aimed at providing food assistance, including jointly with other sectors, were completed. Two missions were denied access by Israeli authorities and two had to be cancelled due to infeasible access through routes assigned by the Israeli authorities. Only eight per cent (2) of missions were denied access or were on hold due to security concerns between October and December 2023.  Due to the increasing access constraints, especially in the north and middle areas, the World Food Programme (WFP) was able to provide food assistance to about 900,000 people through food parcels, wheat, flour, bread at 91 locations, which is a portion of the needs of food assistance in December.   
  • On 12 January, between 15:30 and 16:00, telecommunication companies in Gaza announced that services had been shut down. This is the seventh time that communications in the Gaza strip have stopped working since 7 October. 
  • On 12 January, 178 trucks with food, medicine and other supplies entered the Gaza Strip through the Rafah and Kerem Shalom crossings.  Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Griffith’s stated today that: "while we have seen some minor increase in the number of trucks entering via Rafah and Kerem Shalom, humanitarian supplies alone will not be able to sustain more than 2 million people. We cannot replace Gaza’s commercial sector. Commercial goods must be let in, at scale. A growing list of rejected items means we are unable to bring into Gaza supplies to rehabilitate life-sustaining infrastructure. The system for medical evacuation of patients to Egypt is also woefully inadequate in the face of the massive needs.” 

Hostilities and casualties (Gaza Strip) 

  • The following are among the deadliest incidents reported on 11 January and 12 January: 

    • On 11 January, at about 10:50, a group of Palestinians came under a strike, with six of them reportedly killed, in Abasan Al Kabira, east of Khan Younis.  
    • On 11 January, at about 19:40, nine people, including a child, where reportedly killed when a house was struck in Ash Shoka neighbourhood, east of Rafah. 
    • On 12 January, at about 1:00, 14 people were reportedly killed and others were injured as a house was struck west of Deir al Balah. 
    • On 11 January 2024, at about 17:15, a car was struck in Al Manara, southeast of Khan Younis. Reportedly, minutes later, another strike hit a group of people who were trying to extract those who had been killed from the car. In total, ten people were reportedly killed.  

Displacement (Gaza Strip)

  • On 11 January, new evacuation orders were issued to people in parts of Al Mawasi area and several blocks near Salah Ad Deen Road in southern Gaza, covering an estimated 4.6 square kilometres. The Israeli military stated that it was preparing to operate in the area and ordered those affected to move to Deir al Balah. More than 18,000 people and nine shelters, accommodating an unknown number of IDPs, are expected to be affected by this latest round of orders. 
  • On 10 January, the UN Human Rights Office expressed concern that Israeli forces “have placed civilian lives at serious risk by ordering residents from various parts of Middle Gaza to relocate to Deir Al Balah – while continuing to conduct airstrikes on the city. Israel Defense Forces must take immediate measures to protect civilians in line with its obligations under international law. Forcing the relocation of civilians in no way absolves the IDF from its obligations under IHL to protect civilians in carrying out military operations.” 
  • As of 8 January, according to UNRWA, 1.9 million people, or nearly 85 per cent of the total population of Gaza, were estimated to be internally displaced, including many who have been displaced multiple times, as families are forced to move repeatedly in search of safety. Nearly 1.72 million IDPs are sheltering in 155 UNRWA facilities across all five governorates including 160,000 in the north and Gaza city; facilities are far exceeding their intended capacity. Rafah governorate has for a while been the main refuge for those displaced, with over one million people squeezed into an extremely overcrowded space, following the intensification of hostilities in Khan Younis and Deir al Balah and the Israeli military’s evacuation orders. Obtaining an accurate figure of the total number of IDPs remains challenging.   
  • As of 11 January, some 230 incidents affecting UNRWA premises and people inside them have been reported since 7 October (some with multiple incidents affecting the same location). At least 23 of the incidents involved military use and/or interference on the premises. They also include 66 direct hits on UNRWA installations and 69 different UNRWA installations sustaining damage when a nearby object was hit. In total, at least 330 IDPs staying in UNRWA shelters have been killed and at least another 1,135 were injured since 7 October. UNRWA estimates that at least 323 people sheltering in their shelters have been killed and at least 1,149 people injured since the escalation of hostilities. 


  • Since 11 October 2023, the Gaza Strip has been under an electricity blackout, after the Israeli authorities cut off the electricity supply and fuel reserves for Gaza’s sole power plant were depleted. The communications and fuel shutdown continues to significantly hinder the aid community’s efforts to assess the full extent of needs in Gaza and to adequately respond to the deepening humanitarian crisis. For more information on electricity supply to the Gaza Strip, please see this dashboard

Health care, including attacks (Gaza Strip)

  • On 12 January, The Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS), in coordination with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), evacuated about 28 injured people and their accompaniers from Shifa Hospital, Kamal Adwan Hospital, and the PRCS medical point in Jabalya to southern Gaza for further treatment. 
  • On 10 January, four members of the Palestine Red Crescent Society’s (PRCS) ambulance crew and two injured people were killed when an ambulance was struck on Salah Ad Deen Road at the entrance of Deir al Balah, according to PRCS. Condemning all attacks on healthcare workers, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) stated that “International Humanitarian Law is clear. Medical personnel should never lose their own lives while providing support to their community. All parties to this conflict must respect the humanitarian mission of the PRCS and other first responders.” 
  • According to WHO, 15 out of Gaza’s 36 hospitals are partially functional; nine in the south and six in the north. In Deir al Balah and Khan Younis, three hospitals – Al Aqsa, Nasser, and Gaza European – are at risk of closure due to the issuance of evacuation orders in adjacent areas and the ongoing conduct of hostilities nearby.  Hospitals in the north have been offering limited maternity, trauma, and emergency care services. However, they face challenges such as a shortage of medical staff, including specialized surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensive care staff, as well as a lack of medical supplies, and have an urgent need for fuel, food, and drinking water. The nine partially functional hospitals in the south are operating at three times their capacity, while facing critical shortages of basic supplies and fuel. According to the MoH in Gaza, occupancy rates are reaching 206 per cent in inpatient departments and 250 per cent in intensive care units.  
  • On 11 January, the MoH stated that 707 injured and 438 other patients were able to cross through the Rafah crossing for treatment outside of Gaza. An additional 6,200 people are awaiting to be transferred for treatment abroad while over 10,000 cancer patients are at risk of death because of lack of access to treatment following the closure of the Turkish As Sadaqa Hospital. 

Hostilities and casualties (Israel) 

  • Over 1,200 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed in Israel, including 36 children, according to the Israeli authorities, the vast majority on 7 October. 
  • The Israeli authorities estimate that about 136 Israelis and foreign nationals remain captive in Gaza. During the humanitarian pause (24-30 November), 86 Israeli and 24 foreign national hostages were released.  
  • On 12 January, the Under-Secretary-General Martin Griffiths stated that “The families of the hostages have been waiting for the release of their loved ones for nearly 100 days, or at least for some information about their well-being. Unfortunately, since November no hostages have been released and no information has been shared with their families and loved ones.” He reiterated his call for the humane treatment and immediate release of all hostages. 

Violence and casualties (West Bank)

  • On 12 January, a Palestinian man died of wounds he sustained earlier that day in a physical assault by Israeli forces who raided Zeita village in Tulkarm. Confrontations erupted and two Palestinian injuries were also reported. 
  • Since 7 October 2023 and as of 16:00 on 12 January 2024, 333 Palestinians have been killed, including 84 children, across the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Additionally, two Palestinians from the West Bank were killed while carrying out an attack in Israel on 30 November. Of those killed in the West Bank (333); 324 were killed by Israeli forces, eight by Israeli settlers and one by either Israeli forces or settlers. So far in 2024 (as of 16:00 on 12 January), 24 Palestinians, including three children, have been killed. The number of Palestinians killed in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, in 2023 (507) marks the highest number of Palestinians killed in the West Bank since OCHA started recording casualties in 2005. 
  • Since 7 October 2023 and as of 12 January 2024, five Israelis, including four members of the Israeli forces, have been killed in Palestinian attacks in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Four Israelis were killed in an attack carried out by Palestinians from the West Bank in West Jerusalem (one of the four was killed by Israeli forces who misidentified him). The number of Israelis killed (36) in the West Bank and Israel in 2023 in attacks perpetrated by Palestinians from the West Bank was the highest since OCHA started recording casualties in 2005. 
  • Since 7 October 2023 and as of 12 January 2024, 4,176 Palestinians, including 631 children, were injured in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Of them, 4,046 have been injured by Israeli forces, 109 by settlers and 21 by either Israeli forces or settlers. Of the total injuries, 52 per cent were reported in the context of search-and-arrest and other operations, 36 per cent in demonstrations and 8 per cent during settler attacks against Palestinians. Some 33 per cent of those injuries have been caused by live ammunition, compared with 9 per cent in the first nine months of 2023. 

Settler Violence

  • Since 7 October 2023 and as of 12 January 2024, OCHA recorded 413 Israeli settler attacks against Palestinians, resulting in Palestinian casualties (41 incidents), damage to Palestinian-owned property (321 incidents), or both casualties and damage to property (51 incidents). This reflects a daily average of four incidents since 7 October 2023 until 12 January 2024. 
  • One-third of the settler attacks against Palestinians after 7 October involved firearms, including shootings and threats of shootings. In nearly half of all recorded incidents after 7 October, Israeli forces were either accompanying or reported to be supporting the attackers. 
  • In 2023, 1,229 incidents involving settlers in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem (with or without Israeli forces), resulted in Palestinian casualties, property damage or both. Some 913 of these incidents resulted in damage, 163 resulted in casualties and 153 resulted in both. This is the highest number of settler attacks against Palestinians in any given year since OCHA started recording incidents involving settlers in 2006. 

Displacement (West Bank) 

  • Since 7 October 2023 and as of 12 January 2024, at least 198 Palestinian households comprising 1,208 people, including 586 children, have been displaced amid settler violence and access restrictions. The displaced households are from at least 15 herding/Bedouin communities. More than half of the displacements occurred on 12, 15, and 28 October, affecting seven communities. The displacement toll since 7 October 2023, represents 78 per cent of all displacement reported due to settler violence and access restrictions since 1 January 2023 (1,539 people, including 756 children).  
  • A total of 453 Palestinians, including 227 children, have been displaced between 7 October 2023 and 12 January 2024, following the demolition of their homes, due to lack of Israeli-issued building permits in Area C and East Jerusalem, which are almost impossible to obtain.  
  • A total of 19 homes have been demolished and 95 Palestinians, including 42 children, displaced due to punitive demolitions in the last three months of 2023. The numbers exceed those reported in the first nine months of the same year, during which 16 homes were punitively demolished and 78 people displaced.  
  • From 7 October 2023 to 12 January 2024, 602 Palestinians, including 263 children, have been displaced, following the destruction of 94 homes during other operations carried out by Israeli forces across the West Bank. About 94 per cent of the displacement was reported in the refugee camps of Jenin, and in Nur Shams and Tulkarm, both in Tulkarm. This represents 65 per cent of all displacement reported due to the destruction of homes during Israeli military operations since January 2023 (908 people). Over the past two days, Israeli forces raided Nur Shams and Jenin camps and heavily bulldozed road infrastructure and caused damage to other structures, including houses. 


  • As of 11 January, Member States have disbursed $648.2 million against the updated Flash Appeal launched by the UN and its partners to implement its response plan in support of 2.2 million people in the Gaza Strip and 500,000 people in the West Bank. This constitutes 54 per cent of the $1.2 billion requested. Private donations are collected through the Humanitarian Fund. 



  • Since the start of hostilities, Health Cluster partners have provided healthcare and medical services to an estimated 500,000 people.  
  • The Health Cluster estimated that about 5,000 beds and adequate human resources are required to meet trauma and emergency needs. Only 1,000 beds are available as of 9 January, compared with 3,500 beds available before the beginning of hostilities. A total of 59 out of 77 primary health centres are not functioning leaving many without access to basic health services. 
  • Only 26 per cent of the requested medical supplies needs have been met and only 120 out of 353 formal and informal IDP shelters have access to medical points.  
  • About 350,000 people with chronic illnesses and about 485,000 people with mental health disorders continue to experience disruptions in their treatments. 
  • 1.9 million IDPs remain at high risk of communicable disease due to poor living conditions, notably overcrowding of IDP sites and lack of access to proper water sanitation and hygiene facilities. 


  • Of the 23 active partners of the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Cluster, few can operate across the Gaza Strip. Between 1 and 7 January, WASH partners delivered 3,720 cubic metres of water per day through two of the three partially operating short term, low volume diesel plants south of Wadi Gaza. Partners provided 6,300 cubic metres of water and 13,900 litres of fuel to support water supply and distribution. 
  • The combination of water trucking, water from the functional desalination plant, and the restoration of one of the three main water supply lines on 30 December, has yielded only seven per cent of water production in Gaza, compared with the pre-October 2023 supply. Water quality indicators also remain a major concern, with limited large-scale water quality testing campaigns or activities being undertaken.  
  • Through the efforts of the Coastal Municipalities Water Utility (CMWU) and UNICEF, The Wastewater Treatment Plant in Rafah's “Philadelphi Corridor” has resumed full operation. 
  • Heavy rainfall last week has led to flooding in various locations, including Jabalya Camp, raising concerns about potential sewage contamination in the floodwaters. 
  • WASH Cluster partners are attempting to expand sanitation-related response activities for IDPs in Rafah and Khan Younis. However, challenges remain due to material shortages, especially for dual-use items; logistical difficulties in transporting supplies; limited space for latrine construction; and the absence of community support and fecal sludge management systems. 
  • Overall, 1.4 million people in Gaza have been reached with partial water and sanitation assistance at least once since October 2023. 


  • Mine Action partners have continued to provide Explosive Ordinance Risk Education (EORE) and Explosive Remnant of War (ERW) awareness and guidance about preparedness since the start of the hostilities, reaching over 1.1 million IDPs through in person sessions in shelters, and via SMS, radio, and social media campaigns.  
  • The situation in Gaza is complex and challenging for mine action activities, because of substantial contamination from various sources of explosive ordnance (EO). Ongoing hostilities, including airstrikes, shelling, and the use of rockets is causing widespread contamination, posing significant risk. The presence of ERW significantly hinders access and humanitarian efforts, as many areas are inaccessible or dangerous for aid workers to respond safely to humanitarian needs. A comprehensive and multi-faceted mine action response is needed to address, not only the immediate threats, but also the long-term implications for the community.  
  • The main challenges Mine Action actors face include shortage of Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) experts in Gaza. As a result, a comprehensive ERW assessment, and provision of support on access for humanitarian response have been delayed.  
  • Child Protection partners continued to provide awareness raising interventions, mental health and psycho-social support services (MHPSS) for children and caregivers, child protection case management and distribution of clothing kits.  
  • Gender-based violence (GBV) partners continued to highlight and address the increased psychological stress among displaced women and girls and increased protection and GBV risks. GBV prevention, response, and risk mitigation interventions remain extremely difficult given the collapse of services and displacement of service providers, and movement restrictions.  

Shelter and Non-Food Items (NFI) 

  • As of 7 January, it is estimated that about 69,000 housing units across the Gaza Strip have been destroyed or rendered uninhabitable and over 290,000 housing units have been damaged, according to the Government Media Office in Gaza. It is estimated that over 500,000 people will have no home to return to, and that many more will be unable to return immediately, due to the level of damage to surrounding infrastructure, as well as the risk posed by ERW. 
  • Since the start of the hostilities, shelter partners have cumulatively provided 11,500 dignity kits; 36,000 sealing off kits; 650,000 bedding set items (blankets and mattresses); 26,709 tents; 11,500 kitchen sets; and 17,250 winter clothing kits to a total of 914,500 IDPs in UNRWA and non-UNRWA shelters.  
  • There is a high shortage of all essential NFIs for IDPs inside and outside the shelters. This includes 1,200,000 mattresses and blankets, 200,000 emergency shelter kits, including tarpaulin and plastic sheets, at least 50,000 winterized family tents, and 200,000 winter clothes. 
  • Shelter partners report that tents and self-built makeshift shelters are over-crowded as more than 15 people live in one tent, making the space available per person less than the minimum Sphere Standards. This exposes IDPs to unhygienic conditions and communicable diseases. Self-built makeshift shelters are constructed from salvaged materials and are inadequate to withstand current weather conditions.  
  • The Shelter Cluster reports that, based on an IDPs survey conducted in Rafah, rental apartments cost over 800 per cent of the normal price due to lack of residential units in the south. 

Food security 

  • Between 1 and 7 January 2024, a total of 11 Food Security Sector (FSS) partners reached 1,458,257 people throughout the Gaza Strip.  
  • Amid continuing severe access challenges in northern Gaza, a significant portion of the response focused on providing hot meals, with 16,000 meals served at UNRWA shelters and 22,000 meals at public shelters. Additionally, 5,760 hot meals were delivered to IDPs residing with host families. In Gaza governorate, the response included the distribution of 10,000 food parcels to IDPs hosted by families and 1,109 food parcels to non-IDPs. Hot meals were also distributed to 4,500 people in public shelters and 3,700 to IDPs staying with host families.  
  • In central Gaza, food parcels were provided to 41,643 IDPs in public shelters and 16,430 food parcels to IDPs with host families. Ready-to-eat food (RTEs) and hot meals were also part of the response, with RTEs reaching 3,541 people in public shelters and 1,088 people residing with host families.  
  • In Khan Younis, 25,890 food parcels were provided to IDPs in public shelters and hot meals were also distributed. RTEs were also provided to 15,252 IDPs in public shelters.  
  • In Rafah, some 216,855 IDPs with host families and 274,885 non-IDPs received food assistance, consisting mainly of bread. Hot meals and food parcels were also distributed, with the largest numbers going to IDPs sheltering with host families and in makeshift camps within public shelters. 
  • Four for making bread for approximately 238,000 households continued, benefiting approximately 238,000 households outside of shelters. 


  • UNICEF and other nutrition partners continued their efforts to address the nutritional needs of children and mothers through delivery of key nutrition commodities to the Gaza Strip. Partners are providing therapeutic services and supplies for children with acute malnutrition, alongside preventative nutrition supplies, including High Energy Biscuits (HEBs). During the first week of January 2024, nutrition partners delivered the following: 
  • One month supply of ready-to-Use Infant Formula (RUIF) to nearly 2,300 children under five months of age.  
  • Therapeutic milk to some 560 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and medical complications.  
  • Multiple Micronutrients tables (MMS) to more than 18,000 pregnant and nursing mothers.  
  • Vitamin A supplementation to more than 30,000 children under-one year; and  
  • Iron-folate supplementation to some 40,000 pregnant and nursing mothers.  
  • Juzoor, a local partner, distributed 29 pallets of RUIF to several clinics. Additionally, four pallets of Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF)were also provided to the Rafah Central, Deir al Balah, Al Zawaydeh and Tall as Sultan clinics. 
  • More than 135,000 additional cartons of HEBs have been ordered and are expected to reach some 200,000 children under-five and more than 155,000 pregnant and nursing mothers.  


  • The Education Cluster reports that more than 625,000 students and close to 23,000 teachers in the Gaza Strip have been affected by attacks on education and school closures since October 2023, and remain with no access to education or a safe place. 
  • Between 7 October 2023 and 2 January 2024, the Ministry of Education reports that 4,119 students and 221 teachers have been killed, while 7,536 students and 703 teachers have been injured across the Gaza Strip. 
  • 90 per cent of all school buildings in Gaza are being used as shelters for IDPs and have sustained varying levels of damage. Of these, 135 schools sustained minor damage; 126 schools sustained moderate damage; 99 schools sustained major damage and 12 were fully destroyed. Combined, these schools previously served some 433,000 children and more than 16,200 teachers. The Khan Younis, North and Gaza governorates have the highest proportion (three quarters) of all damaged schools. 
  • The Cluster’s response is guided by a three-phased response plan – supporting conflict-affected children, teachers, and care givers in shelters and in host communities; preparing a safe learning environment and re-establishing a sense of normalcy as soon as hostilities stop; and preparing to restore the formal education system through the reconstruction of education infrastructure after a reduction in hostilities. 
  • Since October 2023, nine Education partners have reached close to 93,000 students and teachers with psychosocial support, emergency learning and recreational supplies and activities in the Khan Younis, Rafah, and Middle governorates. Most of the cluster responses are delivered by local partners but no activities have been able to be delivered in the three northern governorates of Gaza.  
  • In the first week of January, the education response remains significantly underfunded, receiving only three per cent of its requirements in the Flash Appeal. Education actors and donors are urged to mobilise rapid resources to meet immediate response requirements and start planning for reconstruction in the medium- to long- term when hostilities subside.  

Multi-purpose Cash Assistance (MCPA) 

  • Since the beginning of the hostilities, 111,254 households (comprising almost 750,000 people) have received emergency MPCA. With about 81,941 households (54,926 people) having already cashed out their assistance. Cash out rates by users stand at 73 per cent and are declining slightly.  
  • While distribution has been across the whole Gaza Strip, the vast majority is now concentrated in the southern governorates.  
  • While formal markets are largely depleted, informal markets are now the key sources of basics goods and services. This includes trading of personal belongings, small household-based production (bread, vegetables), humanitarian assistance, and other items.  
  • Post distribution monitoring data from recipients of cash assistance point to food, medicines, debt repayment, drinking water, and transportation as the top expenditures reported. The percentage of expenditures on food has further decreased over the past weeks, while the percentage of expenditures on medicines has doubled. Some 70 per cent of the respondents report that unrestricted cash has helped them access needed goods and services, either fully or partially, while 87 per cent preferred unrestricted cash for future assistance.  


  • Logistics Cluster partners provided a total of 20 trucks to the Egyptian Red Crescent (ERC) to support humanitarian convoys from Al Arish (Egypt) to Rafah.  
  • In addition, ERC storage capacity in Al Arish to receive and consolidate cargo was expanded by 3,200 m2 with the installation of 10 Mobile Storage Units (MSUs), with a dedicated set-up for the temperature-controlled cargo through four inflatable cold rooms.  
  • In the Gaza Strip, the Logistics Cluster has handed over and installed a total of 18 MSUs (5,760 m2) that have augmented the offloading capacity in the Rafah handover point, Kerem Shalom crossing, and the storage capacity of four UN Agencies and International NGOs. 

Emergency Telecommunications 

  • The Emergency Telecommunications Cluster (ETC) and its partners continue to engage with the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) for authorization to import telecommunications equipment and set up an independent, efficient, and reliable communications platform for humanitarian responders.  
  • The ETC deployed an ICT Specialist to Gaza on 8 January for an initial technical engagement with local actors to plan initial ICT needs assessment and to set up technical coordination processes for the response. 

Protection against sexual abuse and exploitation (PSEA) remains a cross-cutting priority for all clusters. The SAWA helpline, reachable at 121 and through WhatsApp at +972 59-4040121 (East Jerusalem at 1-800-500-121), operates 24/7. This toll-free number is widely disseminated across all areas of intervention to report cases of SEA and to facilitate emergency counselling and referrals for affected communities to access life-saving services. The PSEA Network monitors calls daily and will increase the number of counsellors if necessary.

* Asterisks indicate that a figure, sentence, or section has been rectified, added, or retracted after the initial publication of this update.