Following the widespread destruction and damage of homes during the 2014 Israel-Gaza hostilities, almost a million people became in need of emergency and recovery shelter support and essential non-food items (NFIs). Repair and reconstruction of damaged properties in Gaza has been hampered by slow access to materials and funds. Those displaced due to the war live in precarious conditions and are exposed to a range of protection threats. The Gaza blockade has caused a chronic shortage of housing units and resulted in overcrowding, increases in rental prices, inadequate accommodation and associated health and protection concerns. In East Jerusalem and Area C of the West Bank, Israeli planning policies have undermined the shelter needs of the Palestinian population. Mass displacement is becoming an increasing concern, with dozens of communities identified at high risk of forcible transfer.
In February 2018 the UN agreed with the Israeli government and the PA to undertake a joint review of the temporary Gaza Reconstruction Mechanism (GRM) to improve its functionality, transparency and predictability. In consultation with a variety of stakeholders, the parties introduced various improvements to the GRM in January 2019 and these are expected to facilitate the implementation of humanitarian and development projects.
An oPt Humanitarian Fund Success Story: Ibtisam is a 46-year-old mother of two from Deir al Balah in the Gaza Strip. Until recently, she was struggling to care for her family, including her husband who lives with a disability, and to manage the family’s home, which needed repair and rehabilitation
Recent developments in East Jerusalem place an extended Palestinian refugee family from Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood at risk of imminent forced eviction, following a lengthy legal struggle with an Israeli settler organization. Thirty-two members of the Sabbagh family currently reside in the family home, including six children; at least 19 additional people would be affected by the loss of their family home. This eviction may amount to a forcible transfer, which is a grave breach of the fourth Geneva Convention. Forced evictions contrary to international law also violate the right to adequate housing and the right to privacy, and may be incompatible with other human rights.
An oPt Humanitarian Fund success story: Israel exercises direct control over the 20 per cent of Hebron City, known as H2, which is home to approximately 40,000 Palestinians and a few hundred Israeli settlers living in five settlement compounds. Policies and practices implemented by the Israeli authorities, citing security concerns, have resulted in the forcible transfer of Palestinians from their homes in Hebron city, reducing a once thriving area to a ‘ghost town’. The living conditions of those Palestinians who remain in the closed and restricted areas have been gradually undermined, including with regard to basic services and sources of livelihood.
An oPt Humanitarian Fund success story: Miassar Zo’orb is a 48-year-old widowed mother who lives with four of her children in Khan Younis. She is the only breadwinner for her family, and her main income comes from humanitarian aid. Her home consists of two bedrooms, one bathroom, a kitchen and a living room, and it is footsteps away from the local waste dump.
Funding for humanitarian activities is at an all-time low this year for the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). At the end of July, the 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requirements were only 24 per cent funded; this is a significantly lower level of funding compared with the same period over the past eight years. Humanitarian financing to the oPt has typically fluctuated in response to significant shifts in the context, with notable peaks in financial contributions in response to active hostilities in Gaza. Following the last escalation of hostilities in 2014, humanitarian financing to the oPt has been gradually, but definitively, decreasing year on year.