Lack of accountability for violations of humanitarian and human rights law has been identified as one of the key sources of humanitarian vulnerability in the occupied Palestinian territory. International law requires all state and non-state actors to effectively investigate suspected violations, and, depending on the findings, prosecute those responsible. The law also obliges relevant actors to compensate the victims of violations committed by institutions or individuals acting on their behalf. Action to that effect can significantly contribute to the rehabilitation of victims and survivors, as well as to the deterrence and prevention of future violations.