According to the Israeli military, infantry and armoured forces continued their ground operations in and around Gaza city and northern Gaza, amid intense clashes with Palestinian armed groups. Heavy shelling and airstrikes continued, primarily in the northern area.
At least 195 Palestinian were killed and about 800 injured in less than 24 hours between 31 October and 1 November, in two rounds of Israeli airstrikes on Jabalia Refugee Camp, in northern Gaza, according to the MoH in Gaza. Some 120 people were believed to be trapped under the rubble by midnight on 1 November. The Israeli military stated that the two attacks had targeted buildings where members of armed groups, including a senior Hamas commander, were hiding. OHCHR has expressed serious concerns about these attacks.
On 2 November, also in the Jabalia Refugee Camp, an UNRWA school sheltering thousands of IDPs was hit; as a result, at least 20 people were reportedly killed and five were injured. Another UNRWA shelter at Beach Refugee Camp, also in northern Gaza, was hit, with one child reportedly killed. In the Al Bureij Refugee Camp, south of Wadi Gaza, two UNRWA shelters were hit, reportedly killing two people and injuring over thirty.
Since 7 October, 9,061 Palestinians have been killed, including at least 3,760 children and 2,326 women, and about 22,911 have been injured, according to the MoH in Gaza.
Rescue teams, primarily from the Palestinian Civil Defense, are struggling to carry out their missions, amid continuous airstrikes, severe shortage of fuel to run vehicles and equipment. This is particularly concerning as thousands are estimated to be trapped under rubble. The Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS) announced that, due to the lack of fuel, it had been forced to reduce the number of ambulances it operates.
According to the MoH in Gaza, over two thirds of the fatalities were killed in their homes. Relatedly, as of 26 October, a total of 192 Palestinian families had lost ten or more of their members, 136 Palestinian families had lost six to nine members, and 444 families had lost two to five of their members, the Ministry says.
As of 2 November, 246 school buildings have been hit, including one destroyed and 51 severely damaged.
On 31 October, the Committee to Protect Journalists indicated that 31 journalists had been killed thus far since the start of the hostilities, including 26 Palestinians, four Israelis and one Lebanese.
According to Israeli sources, at least 1,400 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed in Israel, and at least 5,400 have been injured, the vast majority on 7 October. Since Israeli forces began their ground assault, 17 Israeli soldiers have reportedly been killed in Gaza. Israeli media reported that, as of 31 October, the names of 1,159 of these fatalities have been released, including 828 civilians and police, and 331 soldiers. Of those whose ages have been provided, 31 are children.
The cumulative number of IDPs since the start of hostilities in Gaza is estimated neatly 1.5 million. This figure includes nearly 690,400 people staying in 149 UNRWA facilities, 121,750 sheltering in hospitals, churches, and other public buildings, and about 99,150 in 82 non-UNRWA schools. The remaining 550,000-600,000 IDPs are residing with host families, with as many as 150,000 having relocated to shelters in the past few days, seeking food and basic services.
An estimated 160,000 IDPs are housed in 57 UNRWA facilities in the north and in Gaza city. UNRWA, however, is no longer able to provide services in those areas and does not have accurate information on their needs and conditions since the evacuation order from the Israeli authorities on 13 October.
The average number of IDPs per shelter in UNRWA facilities has reached almost four times their intended capacity. This means that, in some shelters, up to 240 people are living in a classroom of about 40 to 60 square metres. The Khan Younis Training Centre is currently the most crowded shelter, hosting 22,100 IDPs, more than ten times its capacity.
Poor sanitation conditions and consumption of unsafe water among displaced people raise serious concerns about potential public health risks; reports indicate increasing cases of upper respiratory infections, and skin and diarrheal diseases among IDPs.
Over 15 per cent of the IDPs are estimated to have disabilities, yet most shelters are not adequately equipped for their needs. Shelters lack the required medical mattresses and beds, causing ulcers for people unable to move and other medical issues that cannot be treated in unsterilized conditions. In recent days, UNRWA, in cooperation with the ‘Humanity and Inclusion’ NGO, has provided 2,600 persons with disabilities, injured people, children and the elderly with hygiene kits, assistive devices, eyeglasses, first aid kits and baby kits.
In Israel, hundreds of thousands of people residing near the Gaza Strip, as well as along the border with Lebanon, have fled or been evacuated, with the Israeli authorities providing for the needs of these IDPs (this report focuses on the humanitarian situation in Gaza).
Since 11 October, Gaza has been under a full electricity blackout, following Israel’s halt of its electricity and fuel supply to Gaza, which in turn triggered the shutdown of Gaza’s sole power plant. This has forced essential service infrastructure to rely on backup generators, which are limited by the scarcity of fuel in the Strip. Goods entering Gaza since 21 October through the Rafah crossing have not included fuel.
Following the shutdown of services due to lack of fuel and electricity in the Turkish-Palestinian Friendship hospital, the MoH in Gaza stated that Shifa Hospital in Gaza city and the Indonesian Hospital, in Beit Lahiya, were almost out of fuel, and appealed to the international community and locals in assisting with providing fuel. They warned that 42 children under life support devices, 62 wounded using respiration equipment and 650 patients with kidney failure were at the highest risk, should the electricity cut off.
Currently, 14 out of 35 hospitals with inpatient capacities are not functioning, in addition to two outpatient specialist centres. Additionally, 51 (71 per cent) of all primary care facilities across Gaza (72) are not functioning, including 74 per cent of those located in Gaza city and 92 per cent of those in northern Gaza.
Nine UNRWA health centres are still operational in the South and recorded 4,400 patient visits on 31 October, including refugees and non-refugees. Healthcare services in UNRWA shelters were maintained with the support of 92 mobile medical units and medical teams, serving 9,800 patients at shelters on 31 October.
All operating hospitals and clinics are affected by severe fuel shortages, leading to stringent rationing and limited use of generators for only the most essential functions. Moreover, maintaining and repairing backup generators, originally not intended for continuous operation, is growing increasingly challenging due to the scarcity of spare parts.
Health partners have documented an increase in cases of skin and diarrheal diseases among IDPs in shelters due to the inadequate access to water and sanitation services. Upper respiratory infections are also on the rise due to the overcrowding and poor living conditions within the shelters, especially as the temperatures have started to drop.
The ongoing hostilities have displaced most of the medical professionals in Gaza, forcing the hospitals to operate with less than one-third of their normal staffing levels, according to MoH in Gaza.
Of the 102 trucks that entered Gaza through the Rafah Crossing on 2 November, at least 25 carried medical supplies. Overall, at least 103 out of the 374 trucks that have entered since 21 October, carried medical supplies.
Some 120 public wells and one desalination plant in the Middle and southern area of the Gaza Strip reportedly shut down on 2 November, after depleting their fuel reserves. The other desalination plant that was active reduced its production to a minimum level and is providing only for water trucking distribution. The last fuel delivery to these facilities by UNRWA and UNICEF took place on 29 October.
Only one out of the three water supply lines from Israel, servicing the Middle Area, is currently operational providing some 500 cubic metres of drinking water per hour to Nuseirat, Bureij, Maghazi, and Zawaida areas. Supply from Israel to western Khan Younis, which stopped on 30 October for unclear reasons, was not restored. This line previously supplied 600 cubic metres of drinking water per hour. The third pipeline from Israel to northern Gaza remains also closed since 8 October.
As a result, WASH partners estimate that water consumption has dropped from 25 to only five liters per day per capita. Except for some households in the Middle Area connected to the network, most people rely on water trucking and bottled water provided as assistance.
On 2 November, three trucks out of the aid convoy carried about 100,000 litres of water, which will cover the drinking water needs for some 20,000 people for one day and is set to be distributed among the IDP centres in the south of Gaza. Overall, out of the 374 trucks that have entered Gaza since 21 October, at least 26 carried drinking water (jerrycans and bottles), water tanks, water purification equipment, and hygiene kits.
Of the trucks that entered Gaza on 2 November through Rafah, 54 carried food items, including ready-to-eat options like canned tuna, canned meat, and other non-perishables. In total, out of the trucks that have entered since 21 October, more than 150 have transported food.
These food supplies are primarily distributed to IDPs and host families, with only flour being provided to bakeries. Food assistance covers about 10 per cent of the minimum caloric intake requirement, according to the Food Security Sector.
WFP estimates that current stocks of essential food commodities in the market are sufficient for about seven more days. However, at the shop level, the available stock is expected to last for five days. Retailers are facing significant challenges when restocking from wholesalers due to widespread destruction and lack of security.
As of 2 November, only one of the bakeries contracted by WFP and eight local bakeries in the southern and Middle areas have been intermittently providing bread to shelters and IDPs, depending on the daily availability of flour. UNRWA has been supplying flour to these local bakeries to offer bread at half the cost. However, UNRWA reports that the available wheat stocks will only last for another five to six days before being depleted. The shortage of fuel is the primary obstacle preventing these bakeries from meeting local demand, and there is also a shortage of clean water required for utilizing the available flour in bread production, further hindering bakery operations.
Eleven bakeries have been struck and destroyed since 7 October (six in Gaza city, two in Jabalia, two in the Middle Area and one in Khan Younis). As a result, people are struggling to obtain bread. Hours-long queues are reported in front of bakeries, where people are exposed to airstrikes.
After being cut at around 03:00 on 1 November, Gaza’s telecommunication and internet services were gradually restored after almost nine hours of blackout. Ambulances and Civil Defense teams were unable to locate the injured, as thousands of people were estimated to be still under the rubble. Civilians were unable to receive updated information on where they can access humanitarian relief and where they may move to be in lesser danger.
Since the escalation of hostilities, the Gaza Strip has experienced a significant reduction in internet access. Sixty per cent of electric boxes and remote switches are out of service, 65 per cent of households and businesses have lost access to the network and 36 per cent of local fiber routes have been lost due to fiber cuts affecting both fixed and mobile networks. Almost half of local networks were damaged as well, which includes street poles, cables, and fiber trenches.
The mobile company Jawwal, which serves over 85 per cent of Gaza’s residents, has lost 65 per cent of its radio sites.
All humanitarian agencies and personnel have faced significant constraints in providing humanitarian assistance, due to ongoing hostilities, movement restrictions and shortages of electricity, fuel, water, medicines, and other essential items. Humanitarian partners cannot safely access people in need and warehouses where aid supplies are stored.
Additionally, the dramatic shutdown in internet connectivity has hindered efforts to monitor, document and report, including possible violations and abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law.
Despite these challenges, humanitarian actors are working around the clock to support the most vulnerable. The major operation entails the hosting of IDPs in UNRWA schools, where basic food, medicine and support is provided to retain dignity and a glimmer of hope. Other interventions include the distribution of food and cash assistance to IDPs and emergency fuel to WASH facilities, psychosocial support helplines, and a mass media campaign to raise awareness about the risks of unexploded ordnance (for further detail, see Humanitarian Needs and Responses).
As of 2 November, about US$ 126 million worth of pledges have been confirmed in support of the inter-agency Flash Appeal launched on 12 October by the oPt Humanitarian Country Team. This represents about 43 per cent of the estimate required when the Appeal was first launched. Of the total amount pledged, 90 per cent are for UN agencies and 10 per cent for national and international NGOs. About $81.85 million were earmarked for UNRWA; $7.1 million for WHO, and $22 million for WFP.
Private donations to the Occupied Palestinian Territory Humanitarian Fund are collected online through this link: crisisrelief.un.org/opt-crisis.
In the West Bank, between the afternoon of 1 November and 21:00 on 2 November, Israeli forces killed three Palestinians, including one child; another child died from wounds sustained previously. This brings the total number of Palestinians killed by Israeli forces or settlers since 7 October to 132, including 41 children. Of these, 124 people, including 40 children, were killed by Israeli forces; and eight, including one child, by Israeli settlers. One member of Israeli forces was killed by Palestinians.
On 2 November, an Israeli settler travelling in a vehicle was killed in a drive-by shooting attack reportedly by Palestinians near Beit Lid (Tulkarm).
The number of Palestinians killed since 7 October represents more than one third of all Palestinian fatalities in the West Bank so far in 2023 (376).
On 2 November, in two separate incidents in Qalqilya city and Al Bireh in Ramallah, Israeli forces shot and killed three Palestinians, including a 14-year-old child and injured four others, including one child with live ammunition during confrontations over the course of a search-and-arrest operation. On 30 October, Israeli forces shot and injured with live ammunition a 14-year-old child during confrontations over the course of a search-and-arrest operation near Zawata junction in Nablus city; the boy succumbed to his wounds on 2 November, bringing the total number of children killed by Israeli forces since 7 October to 40, half of whom were reported killed during search-and-arrest operations.
Of the Palestinian fatalities since 7 October, almost 50 per cent were killed during confrontations that followed Israeli search-and-arrest operations, mainly in Jenin and Tulkarm governorates; 35 per cent were in the context of demonstrations in solidarity with Gaza; and most of the remaining 10 per cent were killed while attacking or allegedly attacking Israeli forces or settlers, and in settler attacks against Palestinians.
Since 7 October, Israeli forces have injured 2,219 Palestinians, including at least 236 children. 62 Palestinians were injured by settlers, including nine with live ammunition. About 1,200 Palestinians have been injured by Israeli forces in the context of demonstrations. Some 27 per cent of those injuries have been caused by live ammunition.
The already high level of Israeli settler violence recorded during the first nine months of 2023 has sharply increased since the escalation of hostilities. Since 7 October, OCHA has recorded 186 settler attacks against Palestinians, resulting in Palestinian casualties (26 incidents), damage to Palestinian property (128 incidents), or both casualties and damage to property (32 incidents). This reflects a daily average of seven incidents, compared with three since the beginning of the year.
Out of the 186 settler attacks, more than one-third involved threats with firearms, including shooting. Almost half of all incidents involved Israeli forces accompanying or actively supporting the attackers. Many of the latter incidents were followed by confrontations between Israeli forces and Palestinians, where three Palestinians were killed, and dozens injured. Affected properties included 25 residential structures, 42 agricultural/animal-related structures, 74 vehicles and more than 670 trees and saplings.
In the past 24 hours, a total of 41 Palestinians were displaced amid settler violence in Hebron.
On 2 November, eight Palestinian households, comprising 41 members, including 23 children, were displaced from Khirbet Zanuta community in Hebron, after a series of settler attacks including where several residential and animal related structures were vandalized. Additionally, settlers pointed guns at residents, threatening to kill them if they did not leave. Earlier, on 28 October, 24 families, comprising 141 members, including 70 children, left the area along with their livestock.
Since 7 October, at least 111 households comprising 905 people, including 356 children, have been displaced in this context. The displaced households are from more than 15 herding/Bedouin communities. Seven of these communities had schools which are not accessible anymore; at least three of these schools have been vandalized by Israeli forces and/or settlers and are now at a higher risk of demolition.
On 21 October, following the forced displacement of Wadi as Seeq Bedouin community, situated in Area C to the northeast of Ramallah, on 11 October, Israeli settlers raided the deserted community and destroyed the belongings left behind, including the donor-funded school structure and school-related properties inside.
Additionally, since 7 October, 120 Palestinians, including 55 children, have been displaced following demolitions in Area C and East Jerusalem, due to lack of permits, and another 23, including 13 children following punitive demolitions, which target the family homes of perpetrators and alleged perpetrators of fatal attacks against Israelis.
OHCHR has received a number consistent and credible reports of systematic cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment of detainees, and of physical and psychological violence against family members.
OHCHR documented one of these cases, where a Palestinian man was arrested by Israeli forces on 31 October. A video shows an Israeli soldier kicking the man several times in the stomach and calling him racist names, while the man is kneeled, blindfolded and with hands tied behind his back. During the same arrest operation, Israeli forces damaged the house contents and reportedly threatened the man's family with shooting if they did not cooperate. OHCHR has documented similar cases of beating and ill-treatment of Palestinian detainees, possibly amounting to torture.
On 1 November, according to Israeli media, Israeli forces stated that they were investigating the abuses and that one reserve soldier involved had been dismissed from reserve service. OHCHR has documented other similar cases of beating and ill-treatment of Palestinian detainees, possibly amounting to torture, indicating that such cases are not isolated.
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Since 7 October WASH partners have provided:
Protection against sexual abuse and exploitation (PSEA) remains a cross-cutting priority for all clusters. The SAWA helpline, reachable at 121 and through WhatsApp at +972 59-4040121 (East Jerusalem at 1-800-500-121), operates 24/7. This toll-free number is widely disseminated across all areas of intervention to report cases of SEA and to facilitate emergency counseling and referrals for affected communities to access life-saving services. The PSEA Network monitors calls daily and will increase the number of counselors if necessary.