According to the Israeli military, infantry and armoured forces continued their ground operations within northern Gaza, especially in the Al Karama area, Jabalia – northwest of Gaza city, and Az Zaitoun neighbourhood, east of Gaza city. Exchanges of fire and airstrikes reportedly continued also in the Middle Gaza, especially in east Al Maghazi and Al Bureij, as well as in An Nuseirat camp. Bombardment and airstrikes continued over the past 24 hours.
The following were some of the deadliest incidents: on 1 November, at about 13:00, for the second day in a row and within less than 24 hours, heavy airstrikes hit Jabalia Refugee Camp, reportedly destroying multiple residential buildings, and killing dozens. On 31 October, an Israeli airstrike hit the nine-floor ‘Mohandessin Tower’ in An Nuseirat camp (Middle Area), reportedly killing 45 Palestinians and injuring dozens. On 1 November, at around 04:15, airstrikes reportedly hit two buildings in Khan Yunis, killing 12 Palestinians and injuring 40 others.
Since 7 October, 8,805 Palestinians have been killed, including at least 3,648 children and 2,187 women, and about 22,240 have been injured, according to the MoH in Gaza.
Rescue teams, primarily from the Palestinian Civil Defense, are struggling to carry out their missions, amid continuous airstrikes, severe shortage of fuel to run vehicles and equipment. This is particularly concerning as thousands are estimated to be trapped under rubble. The Palestine Red Crescent Society (PRCS) announced that, due to the lack of fuel, it had been forced to reduce the number of ambulances it operates.
According to the MoH in Gaza, over two thirds of the fatalities were killed in their homes. Relatedly, as of 26 October, a total of 192 Palestinian families have lost ten or more of their members, 136 Palestinian families have lost six to nine members, and 444 families have lost two to five of their members, the Ministry says.
Since 7 October, 19 IDPs sheltering in UNRWA premises have been killed and 310 have been injured. In total, 44 UNRWA installations have been damaged since 7 October. As of 1 November, 70 UNRWA staff have been killed during the hostilities; this is the highest number of UN aid workers to be killed in such a short period of time.
On 31 October, the Committee to Protect Journalists indicated that 31 journalists had been killed thus far since the start of the hostilities, including 26 Palestinians, four Israelis and one Lebanese.
Indiscriminate rocket firing by Palestinian armed groups towards Israeli population continued over the past 24 hours, with no fatalities or injuries reported.
According to Israeli sources, at least 1,400 Israelis and foreign nationals have been killed in Israel, and at least 5,400 have been injured, the vast majority on 7 October. Since Israeli forces began their ground assault, 15 Israeli soldiers have reportedly been killed. Israeli media reported that, as of 31 October, the names of 1,138 of these fatalities have been released, including 826 civilians and police, and 315 soldiers. Of those whose ages have been provided, 31 are children.
The cumulative number of IDPs since the start of hostilities in Gaza is estimated at over 1.4 million. This figure includes nearly 690,400 people staying in 149 UNRWA facilities, 121,750 sheltering in hospitals, churches, and other public buildings, and about 96,400 in 76 non-UNRWA schools. The remaining 550,000-600,000 IDPs are residing with host families, with as many as 150,000 having relocated to shelters in the past few days, seeking food and basic services.
The average number of IDPs per shelter in UNRWA facilities has reached almost four times their intended capacity. The Khan Younis Training Centre is currently the most crowded shelter, hosting 22,100 IDPs, more than ten times its capacity.
Over 15 per cent of the IDPs are estimated to have disabilities, yet most shelters are not adequately equipped for their needs. Shelters lack the required medical mattresses and beds, causing ulcers for people unable to move and other medical issues that cannot be treated in unsterilized conditions. In recent days, UNRWA, in cooperation with the ‘Humanity and Inclusion’ NGO, has provided 2,600 persons with disabilities, injured persons, children and the elderly with hygiene kits, assistive devices, eyeglasses, first aid kits and baby kits.
In Israel, hundreds of thousands of people residing near the Gaza Strip, as well as along the border with Lebanon, have fled or been evacuated, with the Israeli authorities providing for the needs of these IDPs (this report focuses on the humanitarian situation in Gaza).
Since 11 October, Gaza has been under a full electricity blackout, following Israel’s halt of its electricity and fuel supply to Gaza, which in turn triggered the shutdown of Gaza’s sole power plant. This has forced essential service infrastructure to rely on backup generators, which are limited by the scarcity of fuel in the Strip. Goods entering Gaza since 21 October through the Rafah crossing have not included fuel.
Following the shutdown of services due to lack of fuel and electricity in the Turkish-Palestinian Friendship hospital, the MoH in Gaza stated that Shifa Hospital in Gaza City and the Indonesian Hospital, in Beit Lahiya, were almost out of fuel, and appealed to the international community and locals in assisting with providing fuel. They warned that 42 children under life support devices, 62 wounded using respiration equipment and 650 patients with kidney failure were at the highest risk, should the electricity cut off.
Currently, 14 out of 35 hospitals with inpatient capacities are not functioning, in addition to two outpatient specialist centres. Additionally, 71 per cent (51/72) of all primary care facilities across Gaza (72) are not functioning, including 74 per cent of those located in Gaza City and 92 per cent of those in northern Gaza.
All operating hospitals and clinics are affected by severe fuel shortages, leading to stringent rationing and limited use of generators for only the most essential functions. Moreover, maintaining and repairing backup generators, originally not intended for continuous operation, is growing increasingly challenging due to the scarcity of spare parts.
Health partners have documented an increase in cases of skin and diarrheal diseases among IDPs in shelters due to the inadequate access to water and sanitation services. Upper respiratory infections are also on the rise due to the overcrowding and poor living conditions within the shelters, especially as the temperatures have started to drop.
The ongoing hostilities have displaced most of the medical professionals in Gaza, forcing the hospitals to operate with less than one-third of their normal staffing levels, according to MoH in Gaza.
As of 17:00 on 31 October, one out of the three water supply lines from Israel, servicing the Middle area, was restored for the first time since it was cut off on 8 October, providing some 500 cubic metres of drinking water per hour to Nuseirat, Bureij, Maghazi, and Zawaida areas.
By contrast, supply from Israel to western Khan Younis, which stopped on 30 October for unclear reasons, was not restored. This line previously supplied 600 cubic metres of drinking water per hour. The third pipeline from Israel to northern Gaza remains also closed since 8 October.
In the Middle Area and southern Gaza, the operation of two seawater desalination plants at about 40 per cent of their capacity, alongside 120 water wells and 20 pumping stations, has continued. This has been enabled by the delivery of small amounts of fuel by UNRWA and UNICEF. As a result, households still connected to the water network have been receiving water for a few hours a day, while others have received water by trucks.
All water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) support is currently limited to southern Gaza. Neither the water desalination plant nor the Israeli pipeline supplying Gaza city and northern Gaza are operational. While UNRWA and UNICEF have also provided limited amounts of fuel to several water wells, water is provided by trucks only. In recent days, water trucking activities inside Gaza stopped due to ongoing military operations.
On 1 November, eight trucks out of the aid convoy carried about 80,000 litres of water, which will cover water needs for 15,000 people for one day and is set to be distributed among the IDP centres in the south of Gaza. Overall, out of the 227 trucks that have entered Gaza since 21 October, at least 26 carried drinking water (jerrycans and bottles), water tanks, water purification equipment, and hygiene kits.
Eleven bakeries have been struck and destroyed since 7 October (six in Gaza city, two in Jabalia, two in the Middle Area and one in Khan Younis). As a result, people are struggling to obtain bread. Hours-long queues are reported in front of bakeries, where people are exposed to airstrikes.
As of 1 November, only one of the bakeries contracted by the World Food Programme (WFP), and eight additional local bakeries, mainly in the southern and middle areas, were operational and supplying bread to shelters. UNRWA continued to cooperate with these local bakeries and supply them with flour, allowing them to offer bread at half the cost. The shortage of fuel is the primary obstacle preventing these bakeries from meeting local demand.
Whenever possible, UNRWA has been distributing hot meals to IDPs in shelters, mostly donations received from host communities. While limited, this assistance plays an important support role, given the limited access to the local market and the inability of many IDPs to prepare hot meals at their shelters.
Forty of the trucks that entered Gaza through the Rafah Crossing on 31 October carried food items, including ready-to-eat food, such as canned tuna, canned meat, and other non-perishables. Overall, over 100 out of the trucks that have entered since 21 October, carried food.
Between 03:00 and 11:15 on 1 November, Gaza’s telecommunication and internet services were cut for the second time in six days. Ambulances and Civil Defense teams were unable to locate the injured, as thousands of people were estimated to be still under the rubble. Civilians were unable to receive updated information on where they can access humanitarian relief and where they may move to be in lesser danger.
Since the escalation of hostilities, the Gaza Strip has experienced a significant reduction in internet access. Sixty per cent of electric boxes and remote switches were out of service, 65 per cent of households and businesses have lost access to the network and 36 per cent of local fiber routes were lost due to fiber cuts affecting both fixed and mobile networks. Almost half of local networks were damaged as well, which included street poles, cables, and fiber trenches.
The mobile company Jawwal, which serves over 85 per cent of Gaza’s residents, has lost 65 per cent of its radio sites.
All humanitarian agencies and personnel have faced significant constraints in providing humanitarian assistance, due to ongoing hostilities, movement restrictions and shortages of electricity, fuel, water, medicines, and other essential items. Humanitarian partners cannot safely access people in need and warehouses where aid supplies are stored.
Additionally, the dramatic shutdown in internet connectivity has hindered efforts to monitor, document and report, including possible violations and abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law.
Despite these challenges, humanitarian actors are working around the clock to support the most vulnerable. The major operation entails the hosting of IDPs in UNRWA schools, where basic food, medicine and support is provided to retain dignity and a glimmer of hope. Other interventions include the distribution of food and cash assistance to IDPs and emergency fuel to WASH facilities, psychosocial support helplines, and a mass media campaign to raise awareness about the risks of unexploded ordnance (for further detail, see Humanitarian Needs and Responses).
As of 27 October, about US$107.93 million worth of pledges have been confirmed in support of the inter-agency Flash Appeal launched on 12 October by the oPt Humanitarian Country Team. This represents about 37 per cent of the estimate required when the Appeal was first launched. Of the total amount pledged, 88 per cent are for UN agencies and 12 per cent for national and international NGOs. About $81.85 million were earmarked for UNRWA; $7.1 million for WHO, and $4 million for WFP.
Private donations to the Occupied Palestinian Territory Humanitarian Fund are collected online through this link: crisisrelief.un.org/opt-crisis.
In the West Bank, between the afternoon of 31 October and 21:00 on 1 November, Israeli forces killed five Palestinians, including one child and an elderly man. This brings the total number of Palestinians killed by Israeli forces or settlers since 7 October to 128, including 35 children. Of these, 120 people, including 34 children, were killed by Israeli forces; and eight, including one child, by Israeli settlers. One member of Israeli forces was killed by Palestinians.
The number of Palestinians killed since 7 October represents more than one third of all Palestinian fatalities in the West Bank so far in 2023 (372).
The deadliest incident, which resulted in three of these fatalities, took place during an Israeli search-and-arrest operation in Jenin Refugee Camp on 1 November. The operation involved clashes between residents and Israeli forces, as well as exchange of fire, during which one Palestinian was killed. Also, during the incident, Israeli forces launched an airstrike using a drone, causing damage, and bulldozed sections of a road. Damage to water networks and homes is yet to be assessed. This is the fourth Israeli operation in Jenin Refugee Camp in the past ten days (since 22 October).
Two additional fatalities were documented in two separate incidents. On 31 October, Israeli forces shot and killed with live ammunition a 16-year-old child during confrontations that erupted over the course of a protest in solidarity with Gaza in Beit Ummar village (Hebron). On 1 November, Israeli forces shot and killed a bystander elderly man with mental disability during a search-and-arrest operation in Tulkarm city that involved exchanges of fire between Israeli forces and Palestinians.
Of the Palestinian fatalities since 7 October, almost 50 per cent were killed during confrontations that followed Israeli search-and-arrest operations; 35 per cent were in the context of demonstrations in solidarity with Gaza; and most of the remaining 10 per cent were killed while attacking or allegedly attacking Israeli forces or settlers, and in settler attacks against Palestinians.
Since 7 October, Israeli forces have injured 2,214 Palestinians, including at least 234 children.60 Palestinians were injured by settlers, including nine with live ammunition. About 1,200 Palestinians have been injured by Israeli forces in the context of demonstrations. Some 27 per cent of those injuries have been caused by live ammunition.
In the past 24 hours, in three incidents, Israeli settlers broke into At Taybe community near Tarqumia town (Hebron) and Khallet al Louza community and Al Khadr town (both in Bethlehem) and vandalized two residential and three agricultural-related structures.
The already high level of Israeli settler violence recorded during the first nine months of 2023 has sharply increased since the escalation of hostilities. Since 7 October, OCHA has recorded 186 settler attacks against Palestinians, resulting in Palestinian casualties (26 incidents), damage to Palestinian property (128 incidents), or both casualties and damage to property (32 incidents). This reflects a daily average of seven incidents, compared with three since the beginning of the year.
Out of the 186 settler attacks, more than one-third involved threats with firearms, including shooting. Almost half of all incidents involved Israeli forces accompanying or actively supporting the attackers. Many of the latter incidents were followed by confrontations between Israeli forces and Palestinians, where three Palestinians were killed, and dozens injured. Affected properties included 25 residential structures, 42 agricultural/animal-related structures, 74 vehicles and more than 670 trees and saplings.
In the past 24 hours, a total of 36 Palestinians were displaced due to settler violence in Hebron and another 21 due to the demolition of their homes in East Jerusalem.
On 31 October, Palestinian families were forced to demolish their homes in Ras Al ‘Amud and Sur Bahir areas in East Jerusalem, citing the lack of Israeli-issued building permits, which are almost impossible to obtain. As a result, four Palestinian households, comprising 21 members, including eleven children were displaced. Since 7 October, 113 Palestinians, including 54 children, have been displaced following demolitions in Area C and East Jerusalem, due to lack of permits, and another 23, including 13 children following punitive demolitions, targeting the family homes of perpetrators and alleged perpetrators of fatal attacks against Israelis.
On 1 November, five Palestinian households, comprising 36 members, including 20 children, were displaced from Al Ganoub community in Hebron, after a series of settler attacks including vandalizing water tanks, solar systems, setting fire to two residential structures with all the families’ belongings inside, including medicine, money, clothes, and food. Additionally, settlers pointed guns at residents, threatening to kill them if they did not leave and then stole their livestock. Earlier, on 11 October, five families, comprising 40 members, including 20 children left the area along with their livestock.
Since 7 October, at least 103 households comprising 864 people, including 333 children, have been displaced in this context. The displaced households are from more than 15 herding/Bedouin communities.
UN’s Human Rights Office (OHCHR) has received a number consistent and credible reports of systematic cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment of detainees, and of physical and psychological violence against family members.
OHCHR documented one of these cases, where a man arrested by Israeli forces on 31 October. A video shows an Israeli soldier kicking the man several times in the stomach and calling him with racist names, while the man is kneeled, blindfolded and with hands tied behind his back. During the same arrest operation, Israeli forces damaged the house contents and reportedly threatened the man's family with shooting if they did not cooperate. OHCHR has documented similar cases of beating and ill-treatment of Palestinian detainees, possibly amounting to torture.
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Protection against sexual abuse and exploitation (PSEA) remains a cross-cutting priority for all clusters. The SAWA helpline, reachable at 121 and through WhatsApp at +972 59-4040121 (East Jerusalem at 1-800-500-121), operates 24/7. This toll-free number is widely disseminated across all areas of intervention to report cases of SEA and to facilitate emergency counseling and referrals for affected communities to access life-saving services. The PSEA Network monitors calls daily and will increase the number of counselors if necessary.